The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950.
The Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizen were included in the Constitution of India right from the drafting of the constitution.
However, the Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen were added/ inserted only after 27 years.
Originally the following 10 Fundamental Duties were given vide the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution of India, under Article 51 A, in the year 1976:-
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to:
- Abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
- Cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
- Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
- Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
- Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
- Value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
- Protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
- Develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
- Safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
- Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement;
In the year 2002 vide the 86th Amendment the following was added as the 11th Duty of the Indian Citizen:
- Every Indian Parent or Guardian must ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of 6 and 14 years