The”Bharat Ratna” Award was established on 2nd January 1954 by the first President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad. along with the following other awards which are called “Padma Awards”:-
- Padma Vibhusan
- Padma Bhusan
- Padma Shri
The “Bharat Ratna” Award had been awarded since the year 1954, only for the highest degrees of national services rendered in the fields of:-
- Public service of high orders
To enable eminent Indian- “Sports-Persons” to receive the nation’s highest civilian award, the Government of India modified the eligibility criteria for “Bharat Ratna” in the year 2011,from the earlier criteria- “for the highest degrees of national service” to “for performance of highest order in any field of human endeavor“–
The Bharat Ratna award had been kept suspended from 13th July 1977 to 26th January 1980.
So far Bharat Ratna award has been given to 41 persons including the following three foreigners:-
- Mother Theresa belonging to the Republic of Macedonia
- Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan belonging to Pakistan
- Nelson Mandela belonging to South Africa
The Bharat Ratna award was originally not intended to be given posthumous. After January 1955 provision was made for issue of posthumous Bharat Ratna award.
The ‘Padma’ Awards-‘Padma Shree’, ‘Padma Bhushan’ & ‘Padam Vibhushan’ and the ‘Bharat Ratna’ Award must not be prefixed or suffixed to the name of the awardees, in any of their-letter heads, visiting cards and elsewhere, which is illegal and unconstitutional.
However, it may be mentioned that the awardee has been ‘awarded’ such an award by the President of India, or the awardee is the ‘recipient’ of the such and award.
The following is a list of Bharat Ratna Awardees from 1954 till date:
Bharat Ratna- Awardees-1954 (3):
1. Sir SARVEPALLI RADHAKRISHNAN (1888–1975)
Dr. S.Radhakrishnan was the ‘Second President of India ‘ and the ‘First Vice President of India’, The birthday of Dr.Radhakrishnan of Tamil Nadu is commemorated as “Teachers’ Day”.
2. CHAKRAVARTHI RAJAGOPALACHARY (1878–1972)
Chakravarthi Rajagopalacharya, known as ‘Rajaji’ was an Indian Freedom Fighter from Tamilnadu. He had been the last Governor General of British India.
3.Sir CHANDRA SEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN ( 1888–1970)
Sir Chandra Sekhara Venkata Raman known as Sir C.V.Raman was a great Physicist from Tamil Nadu. He had received ‘Nobel Prize for Physics’ in the year 1930.for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him- “Raman Effect”.
Bharat Ratna- Awardees-1955: (3)
Dr. Bhagawan Das was a ‘Man of Literature’ and an Indian Freedom Fighter from Uttar Pradesh
6.Pandit JAWHARLAL NEHRU (1889–1964)Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was an Indian Freedom Fighter and a ‘Man of Letters’ from Uttar Pradesh. He had been one of the main architects of the Free & Republic India. Also, he was the First Prime Minister of India.
Bharat Ratna -Awardee- 1957 (1):
7. Mr. GOVIND BALLBH PANT (1887–1961)
Bharat Ratna – Awardee- 1958 (1):
Bharat Ratna -Awardees-1961 (2):
Dr. B.C.Roy was a Physician & Politician from West Bengal. He had been a Chief Minister of West Bengal.
Bharat Ratna-Awardees-1963 (3):
Dr. Rajendra Prasad, fondly called ‘Babu Rajendra Prasad’ was an Indian Freedom Fighter and a Jurist from Bihar. He had been the First President of India from 26th January 1950 to 12th May 1962 for 12 long years.
13. Mr.PANDURAN VAMAN KANE 1880–1972)
Mr. Pandurang Vaman Kane was an Indologist and Sanskrit scholar from Maharashtra.
Bharat Ratna- Awardee-1966 1:
14. Mr. LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI (1904–1966)
Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri was an Indian Freedom Fighter from Uttar Pradesh. He was the second Prime Minister of India from 9th June 1964 to 11th January 1966. He was awarded Bharat Ratna Award posthumously.
Former and the first and the only Lady Prime Minister of India belonging to Uttar Pradesh
Bharat Ratna Awardee-1975:
16.Mr.V. V. Giri (1894–1980)-
Former President- Trade Unionist belonging to Orissa
17.Mr.K. Kamaraj (1903–1975)-
Awarded Posthumous-A Freedom Fighter- Former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu belonging to Tamil Nadu
Bharat Ratna -Awardee-1980:
18.Mother Teresa (1910–1997)-
“The Third “Non-Indian-Citizen” Awarded the Bharat Ratna-A Nobel Laureate (For Peace, 1979) belonging to the Republic of Macedonia- A foreigner dedicated to the Sick people of India especially for those who were affected by Leprosy
19.Acharya Vinoba Bhave (1895–1982)-
20.Mr.Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, known as “Frontier Gandhi”, (1890–1988)-
The First “Non-Indian-Citizen” awarded Bharata Ratna- A Freedom Fighter belonging to Pakistan
Bharat Ratna -Awardee-1988:
21.Mr. M. G. Ramachandran (1917–1987)-
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar had played a key role in the formation of the ‘Indian Constitution’ and he has been a Social Reformer, Economist and Scholar, belonging to Maharashtra / Madhya Pradesh /India.
(Dr.B.R.Ambedkar born in Madhya Pradesh to the Marathi parents from Maharashtra.)
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was born in ‘Mhow’-Town in the Military Cantonment area in the then Central Provinces, now in Madhya Pradesh.
His father Subhedar Ramji Maloji Sakpal, a ‘British Indian Army Office’r, who had been posted at’ Mhow Town’, from a (poor ‘Mahar’, a dalit caste treated as untouchables) Marathi Family of Ambavade Town in Mandangad Taluk in Ratnagiri District, which is now in Maharashtra.
23.Dr.Nelson Mandela– (1918-2013)
24.Mr.Rajiv Gandhi (1944–1991)-
25.Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875–1950)-
Awarded Posthumous– A Freedom Fighter and the First Home Minister of India belonging to Gujarat
26.Mr.Morarji Desai (1896–1995)-
A Former Prime Minister and a Freedom Fighter belonging to Gujarat
Bharat Ratna -Awardees-1992:
27.Mr. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888–1958) –
28.Mr.J. R. D. Tata (1904–1993)-
An Industrialist and a philanthropist belonging to Maharashtra
29.Mr.Satyajit Ray (1922–1992)-
A popular Indian-Movie-Director-An Oscar winner belonging to West Bengal
30. Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam– Born in 1931-
A Former President- Atomic Scientist belonging to Tamil Nadu
31.Mr.Gulzarilal Nanda (1898–1998)-
A Freedom Fighter and a former Prime Minister of India belonging to Punjab
32. Ms,.Aruna Asaf Ali (1908–1996)-
A Carnatic music vocalist belonging to Tamil Nadu
34.Mr.Chidambaram Subramaniam (1910–2000)-
A Freedom Fighter and former Minister of Agriculture called the Father of Green revolution belonging to Tamil Nadu
35.Mr.Jayaprakash Narayan (1902–1979)-
Bharat Ratna -Awardees-1999:
36.Pandit Ravi Shankar– (1920- 2012)-
A Classical sitar player belonging to Uttar Pradesh. Pandit Ravishankar died on 11th December 2012 at the age of 92 years
37. Dr.Amartya Sen– Born in 1933-
A Nobel Laureate ( For Economics, 1998), An Economist belonging to West Bengal
38. Mr.Gopinath Bordoloi (1890–1950)-
Bharat Ratna -Awardees-2001:
39.Ms.Lata Mangeshkar- Born in 1929-
A popular Indian Cinema Play back singer belonging to Maharashtra
40.Ustad Bismillah Khan (1916-2006)-
Bharat Ratna -Awardee-2008:
41.Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi-Born in 1922- 2011
A Hindustani classical vocalist belonging to Karnataka. Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi died on 24th January 2011 at the age of 88 years.
For the Year 2013:
On 16th November 2013, the Government of India has announced that the Bharat Ratna Award will be given to:
42. Sachin Tendulkar- ‘The Master of Cricket’ in India, who has just retired from active cricket, at the end of the Test match against the West Indies held at Mumbai.
43. Dr.C.N.N.Rao- Indian Chemist- the scientist behind India’s maiden ‘Mars’-Mission.
(Update on 05th February 2014)
On 04th February 2014, India’s highest civilian awards ‘Bharat Ratna’ was conferred on and presented by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee in a brief function held at ‘Durbar Hall’ of the Rashtrapathi Bhavan, Newdelhi.to :
Dr.CNR Rao and
The following is the list of Bharat Ratna awardees from 1954 to 2008:-