Over Active Thyroid/“Hyper-thyroidism”:-
Normally the thyroid gland produces adequate quantities of
which help in:-
- Body Metabolism
- Heart beat
- Temperature regulation
Thyroid hormones will affect the functioning of all the body cells and their functions. “Hyper-thyroidism” refers to the conditions associated with the excess secretion of thyroid hormone.
Some of the common symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:-
- Increase in body temperature
- Undue Loss of weight
- Trembling hands
- Muscle weakness
- Chest pain
- Scanty periods
- Staring gaze
- Hair loss
- Shortness of breath
Most of the early symptoms will be mild and will be ignored and Hyper-Thyroidism also is a silent Disease like Hypo-Thyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism will be due to other thyroid disease conditions like “Graves Disease”. People suffering from Graves’ disease are susceptible to hyperthyroid eye disease, which will cause protruding eyes, which gives them a staring gaze that is normally associated with this disease. Also, such patients will suffer from blurry vision or eye pain.
Also, Non Malignant Tumors of:-
- Pituitary gland
-will end up in Hyper-thyroidism. Oral intake of excessive iodine or excess quantities of thyroid hormones will also result in this condition. Inflammation of the thyroid due to causes like viral infections is another reason for this condition. Nodular thyroid disease also will trigger Hyperthyroidism.
Over active thyroid/Hyper- Thyroidism will be diagnosed by:-
- Physical examination of any thyroid inflammation
- Verifying the pulse
- Checking Blood Pressure
- Blood tests for T3 and T4.
To diagnose Hyper Thyroidism the blood levels of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland will be measured. Radioactive Iodine uptake and thyroid scanning test will also be done.
Treatment for Hyper Thyroidism:-
Treatment methods will vary from case to case and normally Radioactive Iodine and Antithyroid medications are employed to kill part of the thyroid to control the over production of hormone. In some extreme cases the gland as a whole will be removed surgically. When the symptoms are left untreated it will lead to serious conditions like:-
- Heart disorders such as:- Irregular heartbeat and Abnormal heart Rhythm. In aged people most of these symptoms might not be present and the patient becomes weak by the day.
There is no known preventive method against hyperthyroidism.
Surgery for Hyper Thyroidism:-
Surgery to partially remove the thyroid gland/ Partial Thyroidectomy was a common form of treatment for hyperthyroidism. The aim is to remove the thyroid tissue producing the excessive thyroid hormone. If too much tissue is removed, an inadequate production of thyroid hormone/Hypothyroidism will result. In such a case, thyroid replacement therapy is done. The major complication of surgery is disruption of the surrounding tissues, including the nerves supplying the vocal cords and the four tiny glands in the neck that regulate Calcium levels in the body/ the Parathyroid glands. Accidental removal of these glands may result in low calcium levels and require calcium replacement therapy.
With the introduction of Radioactive Iodine Therapy and Anti-thyroid drugs, surgery for hyperthyroidism is not commonly used.
Surgery will be suitable for:-
- Pregnant patients and children who have major adverse reactions to anti-thyroid medications.
- Patients with very large thyroid glands
- Patients who have symptoms stemming from compression of tissues adjacent to the thyroid, such as difficulty in swallowing, hoarseness, and shortness of breath.
“Thyroid Cancer” is more prevalent in people over 30 years of age. Women are more at risk to contract thyroid disease. Thyroid cancer can be caused due to radiation exposure or therapy besides other reasons. People with a marked family history are more prone to thyroid cancer attacks. The common types of thyroid cancer are”:-
- Papillary carcinoma
- Follicular carcinoma
Both the above types are fully curable if treated in time. In the early stages, thyroid cancer does not set off any notable symptoms but as the cancer spreads a lump appears in the neck region which can be easily felt by the patient. In the advanced stages thyroid cancer will result in:-
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck area and pain
- Breathing difficulty
- Hoarseness of voice
Surgery is recommended in most of the cases to remove the lum.